Usually, as soon as we lift the car industry, we have a big picture of all kinds of new cars and famous cars, and few people think of parts. However, we cannot deny the fact that no matter how perfect vehicle design requires components, the better the car performance is, the higher the quality requirement of parts enterprises. In the face of the diversified competition pattern of the market since China's entry into the WTO, where is the outlet of the domestic parts and components enterprises, it is a common concern for the industry. Recently, the reporter interviewed the experts of the China Auto Industry Association and the China Automotive Technology Research Center.
R & D capability restricts the development of enterprises
Because of the weak R & D ability, the market share of domestic enterprises can not be guaranteed. According to the experts of the China Automotive Technology Research Center, in developed countries, the R & D capability of auto parts enterprises is ahead of the whole vehicle enterprises. A new developed vehicle in foreign countries, 70% of the intellectual property rights belong to the auto parts enterprise. The domestic parts enterprises R & D capability is generally weak, many parts enterprises to obtain technical drawings or even from the host plant, status is similar to OEM processing workshop, energy is mainly used to meet the established requirements of the host plant, do not have the ability to do with the synchronous development of vehicle.
In recent two years, due to the acceleration of new vehicle launch speed, the supporting pressure of parts enterprises is very large, and it can satisfy the matching requirements of these new models timely. In fact, some new models, such as Bao Lai and Audi, have been introduced in China in the last two years, and it is difficult to find the suppliers in China. The old models, such as Jetta, are more than 200 at home, obviously higher than the new models.
R & D investment is too small
Perhaps due to inertia, domestic enterprises can hardly get rid of the old frame of "vehicle driven parts" development. Therefore, the investment of domestic component enterprises is very limited compared with the vehicle industry.
According to the general statistics of foreign enterprises, the average investment of spare parts industry should be..2 to 1.5 times that of vehicle enterprises, and the current situation in China is less than 0.3 times. Such a small investment makes it difficult for enterprises to invest more in technology development and product development. According to the data, the annual development investment of auto parts enterprises in China is generally about 1% to 4.5% of the sales income, while the developed countries are 3% to 5%, even 10%.
The profit of the mainframe factory represses the spare parts enterprise to survive the difficulty
In order to maximize the profit of the group, the host plant reduces the cost share of the host plant in the whole car market, and transfers it directly to the parts and components enterprises. Under the dual pressure of the cost of raw materials and the procurement cost of host plants, parts and components enterprises are in the middle of upstream raw materials and downstream hosts. In actual procurement, the price of parts and components is reduced by 8% to 10% per year. It is understood that the day before the host plant has issued "double" notice to the upstream parts enterprises: parts enterprises within the specified time will reduce the price to the specified range, if the upstream parts factory, OEMs will cancel the related qualification.
CKD assembly impact can not be ignored
The CKD assembly car actually compresses the profit space of the domestic spare parts enterprises and has a great impact on the domestic spare parts enterprises. According to the statistics, there are about 2000000 cars in China in 2003, and about 129 thousand CKD assembled cars, accounting for about 5% of the total car output. According to the experts, a large part of the new cars made in China is CKD assembly cars, which is very difficult to match with the enterprises in the actual production process and the rate of localization announced, and the moisture is very large. The data indicate that the domestic automobile industry in recent years a large number of the CKD assembly, a considerable part of the national automotive products import quotas, key enterprises imported a full set of spare parts. The whole set of parts assembled by CKD, the price of imported cars than low sales demand, driven by profit, many manufacturers go this way.
Joint venture parts enterprises tend to be sole proprietorship
Market competition is very cruel. Some joint venture main factories and foreign parties take advantage of their right to speak in product, technology and capital to set up obstacles for domestic parts manufacturers, so that some strength parts enterprises in China are hard to enter their supporting systems. As far as the current market situation is concerned, the desire for sole proprietorship is strong.
The host plant delimitation of restricting the development of enterprises:
Because of historical reasons, the domestic major host plants have their own vertical supporting system, and it is difficult to cross matching with the same industry. At the same time, the foreign parties involved in the joint venture with the host plants are brought into their own supporting systems, such as the United States, Japan, Germany, and the legal system. In the choice of supporting enterprises in China, the joint venture will give priority to the original supporting system, resulting in unfair competition.
The above situation shows that the current status of Chinese spare parts enterprises is not optimistic, then, where is the development space of Chinese spare parts enterprises in the end? The industry believes that a person with breadth of vision first, host plant, model group's interests out of short-sighted behavior, from the long-term development of enterprises, and earnestly fulfill the idea of establishing a strategic alliance with all the parts of the enterprise, give some practical significance on the parts of the enterprise support, parts enterprises R & D capability as soon as possible. Secondly, give full play to the function of the industry association, transfer the voice of the enterprise, coordinate the administration of the government, and protect the interests of the industry.